I. Fill the blank with suitable words
1. These is usually an absence of………….in protoplasm
2. The inside of an egg and protoplasm often have the same…………
3. Some cells do not have…………..
4. Before it is digested, food is held in the cell by the ……:…..
5. All cells are similar in that they each have a cell……………
6. Leukocytes are phagocytic………………. erythrocytes are not
7. The gene lies in……………
8. The body grows through cell…………..
9. Some cells can pass through capillary walls. In other words capillaries are ………….
10. Some white blood cells can destroy bacteria. They are…………..
11. Platelets are very small particles which stick together to stop bleeding, i.e. they are………….
12. Erythrocytes can………..to get through narrow blood vessels and then return to their original shape. In other words, erythrocytes are ………..
13. Blood cells cannot pass through artery walls. This means that arteries are…………..
14. Leukocytes can pass through capillary walls. This means that capillary walls are ………….to leukocytes
15. Leukocytes can move around in the tissues. In other words, they are ……………
16. Veins are wide blood vessels with some muscle in their walls, i.e veins are ……………… (blood vessels)
17. Some cells move like the amoebae: they have the property of ………..movement.
18. Arteries are long, tubular blood vessels which can bend and stretch, i.e. they are ………… and ………..
19. Contraction of a muscle is a response to………………
20. Most animals are able to move around because they have cells which can………………….
21. Muscles and glands receive ……………..from the brain and spinal cord
22. When you flex your forearm, your biceps ……….
23. The …………… runs from the brain to the lower part of the back
24. Small…………….. in the mouth release fluids that help break down food
25. The basic unit of the nervous system is…………….
26. The vital organ of the circulatory system is……………
27. Places where a nerve impulse passes from one nerve cell to another are…………….
28. ………………nerves carry impulses from the brain or other nerve centers to the muscles
29. …………..is a chemical substance produced by your body that influences your body’s growth
30. The highest nervous structure which organizes and controls the body activities is………………
31. Is the part of the brain that is located in the lower back of it, which helps control and balance muscular activity
32. The lowest part of the brain system, continuos with the spinal cord concerned with regulating action and vital organs is………..
33. The thick, whitish cord of nerve which extents from the medulla to the second lumbers vertebra is………….
34. The special cells in the bone are called……….
35. The active portion of the bone is…………..
36. The knee and the elbow joints are……………….
37. Calcium is produced in……………….
38. The vertebral column………………the spinal cord
39. The ribcage is attached in the front to the……………
40. Calcium, which is a…………………., is necessary in the development of the body
41. Ligaments are made up of…………………..tissue
42. Abduction means ……………..a part away from the body
43. A hall-and-socket joint, such as the hip joint, allows a very wide range of motion. It is a freely……………….joint
44. The joints between the bones of the head that protect the brain do not move at all. They are……………..joints
45. Joints, which are formed where bones meet, allow the body to……………
46. The ………….. produces, stores, and destroys blood cells
47. A/An …………..in veins prevent the fluid from flowing backwards
48. A/an ………….. is a cavity, e.g. the left atrium of the heart
49. ………….. occur when veins stretch because valves do not work well
50. In the lungs, blood exchanges carbon dioxide for…………..
51. Blood is pumped out to the body through the…………..
52. …………..is the liquid portion of the blood
53. ………..is the waste product of the battle between white blood cells and foreign material
54. The …………..is used by the body to fight infection
55. The blood gets ………….from the lungs to carry to the cells
56. …………. are absorbed by the blood from the duodenum and brought to the cells
57. The………….from the endocrine glands are transported by the blood
58. Dilation and………….of the blood vessels help regulate body temperature
59. The blood helps maintain the fluid………….of the body
60. Blood is continually………….through a closed system in our body
61. ……….is a very small blood vessel, often finer than hair
62. …………….pumps blood into the aorta
63. …………….pumps blood into the lungs
64. ……………..channels blood back to the heart
65. …………….channels blood away from the heart to the tissue
66. ………….artery supplies the heart tissue
67. The …………pumps blood and oxygen around the patient’s body during a medical operation
68. Indigestion sometimes causes……….., an unpleasant burning feeling in your stomach or chest
69. A decrease in the blood supply to the heart causes a…………..
70. A………….treats diseases of the heart
71. Air begins its journey to the lungs through the body at…………….
72. The nose and nasal cavities have the job of controlling the…………of the air
73. Both food and air move through…………
74. When food is swallowed, the epiglottis closes over the…………….
75. The hairs in the nose acts as…………………….
76. The lungs are connected to the trachea by…………..
77. The air sacs of the lungs are encircled by……..
78. The blood vessels which surround the air sacs receive……………….from them
79. Simple…………..measures will reduce the risk of infection
80. Poliomyelitis is now a…………..disease
81. ………………is intended to prevent diseases of bad health
82. The part of the digestive tract below the diaphragm is called the …………………tract
83. The portion of the digestive system that servers as both an air passage and a food passage is the…………………….
84. The absorptive surface area of the muscle walls is increased by millions of fingerlike projections called ……………………
85. In…………………….the appendix becomes inflamed and infected
86. The…………… receives food, mixes it, carries on some absorption, and moves food into the small intestine
87. The ……………stores bile from the liver and releases it when needed
88. ……………largely consist of water, undigested material, mucus, and bacteria
89. After food in the mouth is chewed, moistened, and softened by saliva, it is ready to be……………
90. Despite its name, the……………is not straight
91. The ……………propels food from the pharynx into the stomach
92. A disease which is nearly always fatal if not detected early is……….It can often be treated by radiation or surgery
93. The breaking down of food into a form that can be used by the body cells is both ……………..and mechanical
94. The stomach breaks down food……………..
95. Hormones are………….that are secreted in one place but work in another
96. A lot of water is necessary for the……………..reduction of food into its end products
97. .……………..is the use of drugs to control and cure diseases
98. .……………..is concerned with studying the structure of substances and the way they change
99. .……………..the two substances are very similar
100. Also called a druggist, a…………… prepares drugs and works in a shop
101. …………..is the scientific study of the chemistry of living things
102. You go to a……………to buy drugs
103. Many varieties of ……… cause pain, swelling, and stiffness in the joints, particularly among the elderly
104. You were outside in the heat of the sun for too long. You have a ……………..stroke
105. A ……………….is a doctor who perform operations
106. To avoid infection, operations are performed in a very clean or………….. surroundings
107. ………..surgery is sometimes undertaken before corrective surgery
108. An anesthetic drug which dulls the senses in one area of the body only is a ……………………..anesthetic
109. When a blood transfusion is given, the………………..of the two bloods must match
110. Prior to an operation, a patient is usually given an……………to empty the colon of waste
111. The anesthetist must keep careful watch of the patient’s…………throughout the operation
112. The surgical……………..covering a wound are changed frequently after an operation
113. A patient on the operating table usually has a………….on one arm and a ………..on the other dripping in an intravenous solution
114. An………….. surgeon repairs bone injuries
115. He suffered from a temporary…………….of memory
116. Tendon connect muscles to bones
117. Bones act as a framework for the body
118. The vertebral column protects the spinal cord
119. The ribcage guards the heart, lung and major blood vessel
120. A muscle is usually attached to a bone or a cartilage by a tendon
121. Movable joints are constructed so that two ends of the bones do not rub against each other
122. A pad of cartilage at the end of the bone absorbs jolts
123. Injury to joints may cause a sprain
124. The use of computers has resulted in the gradual disappearance of many manual jobs
125. Bacteria that live in living things are parasites
126. Most bacteria depend on other organism for their food
127. Flagella are used for moving
128. Certain bacteria feed on organic material that are synthesized by other living things
129. Without bacteria, all life would slowly stop
130. Blood is an essential liquid in the body
131. A tree is made up of thousands of strong fibers
132. Food is broken down for the use of the body in the stomach
133. When a driver stops a red light, he is responding to stimuli
134. Staying in the sun too long will make the skin dark
135. Which system of the body has the function of eliminating waste
136. The most important function of food is to provide energy for the body
137. The brain makes it possible for a man to think and to learn
138. The main part of the human brain, occupying the upper portion of skill activity and is the center of the higher mental faculties such as memory, responding, judgment, intelligence and the emotions cerebral hemisphere
139. The ribcage is curved
140. The brain is an organ
141. You’ll get indigestion eating so fast
142. Overweight middle-aged men are more likely than others to suffer from heart attack
143. I was vaccinated against tetanus
144. The pharmacist will make up your prescription
145. The cold and the flu are good example of communicable diseases
146. I always take my daily dose of vitamin C
147. The temperature has risen by two degrees
148. Two players are out of the team because of injury
149. Their bodies were soaked in sweat
150. The vaccine provides longer immunity against flu
151. Dirty hand can be a breeding ground for germs
152. Consult with your physicians about possible treatment
153. I wish my mother would stop interfering me and let me make my own decisions
154. AIDS lower the body’s resitance to infecton
155. When her parents split up, she was heart broken
156. He put his hand across his heart to show where the pain was
157. Eating too many fatty foods is bad for the heart disease
158. A cardiac cripple blames everything on his heart attack and his fear of another one
159. A cardiac failure occurs when the heart stop working
160. You have a slow, rhythmical heart beat
161. He is a kind-hearted person. He’s kind, caring and sympathetic to other people
162. The epiglottis is a piece of cartilage
163. A person will start coughing if food enters the larynx
164. The alveoli get carbon dioxide from the blood
165. During the inspiration, a person is taking air into the body
166. The relationship between the air sacs and the capillaries is what makes breathing possible
167. The pharynx is popularly known as the throat
168. The pharynx leads to two passages: one is for food, and the other, the larynx is for air
169. The voice is generally affected in abnormal conditions of the larynx
170. The alveoli of the lungs are lined with very thin membranes through which exchanges of gases take place
171. The epiglottis is a flap of cartilage that folds down over the opening into the larynx during swallowing
172. The anatomical term for the windpipe is the trachea
173. In the lungs, gas exchange occurs within the alveoli
174. The common term for respiration is breathing
175. Breathing is regulated in part of our brain. It is a/an involuntary
176. Oxygen–rich blood returns to the heart to be sent around the body
177. Physiology is the study of the way in which the body of living things work
178. Cells use oxygen to break down food into energy, need water to live, grow and repair themselves
179. It’s now possible to transplant many of the major human organs
180. The human appendix perform no vital function
181. Most crashes result in serious injury and death
182. He has no fever, his temperature is only 37oC
183. She had a serious bruise on her leg where she banged it again the table
184. More than half of all deaths recorded in The United States are caused by heart disease
185. Paraesthesia pins and needles
186. Productive cough coughing up phlegm or spit
187. Aanaesthesia numbness
188. Retrosternal chest pain pain behind the breast bone
189. Orthopnea shortness of breath when you lie down
190. Stress incontinence trouble holding your water
191. Dysmenorrhoea painful periods
192. Dyspepsia indigestion
193. Oedema swelling, puffiness
194. Intermittent claudication cramp in the leg muscles which comes and goes
195. Isomnia sleeplessness
196. Dyspnea out of breath, out of puff, breathlessness
II. Read the following passage and then circle the correct answer
There are many causes of headaches, and most people suffer them at some time or other. Although doctors have come a long way from the old days, when headaches were ascribed to evil spirits and treatments ranged from cutting our part of the skull to concoctions of cow brain and goat dung, they are still not sure what sets off headaches.
The most significant advance has been the acceptance that they are not the result of emotional stress. Until recently, many doctors thought that imbalances in the body’s systems were to blame, but experts now believe it is the brain itself. They point to malfunctioning chemicals, such as serotonin, whose job it is to send messages to regulate the contraction and dilation of blood vessels in the brain.
Monosodium glutamate, a flavor enhancer used in Chinese cooking, can cause headaches in some people, as do many other common foods. Red wine, aged cheese, coffee, chocolate, nuts, and preserved meats contain nitrates, caffeine, and tyramine, chemicals that may produce pounding headaches.
Even though the exact culprit has yet to be found, there are plenty of treatments for prevention or cure. Over-the-counter preparations such as aspirin are fine for treating the occasional headache, but often exacerbate severe cases. Beta blockers, usually used for lowering blood pressure, seem to head off migraines. Antidepressants are effective, too. But doctors also recommend non-drug treatments such as relaxation techniques, which can be used in combination with medication, and diet modification, to cut out foods that cause attacks.
1. According to the passage, many years ago, one way doctors tried to cure headaches was by…
A. Praying to spirits.
B. Sacrificing cows and goats.
C. Operating on the patient’s head.
D. Writing prescriptions.
2. It is no longer believed that headaches are caused by…
A. Emotional stress.
B. Malfunctioning chemicals in the brain.
C. Certain kinds of foods.
D. Contraction and dilation of blood vessels.
3. According to the passage, doctors now believe that headaches are related to …
A. Imbalance in the body’s systems.
B. Chemicals in the brain.
C. Emotional stress.
D. High blood pressure.
4. According to the passage, beta blockers can be used to…
A. Treat migraines.
B. Cause migraines.
C. Contract blood vessels.
D. Treat depression.
5. According to the passage, severe headaches cannot be successfully treated by…
A. Beta blockers.
C. Relaxation techniques.
Whether one is awake or asleep, the brain emits electrical waves. During wakefulness, the waves are recorded at about ten small waves per second. With the onset of sleep, the waves become larger and slower. The largest, slowest waves occur during the first three hours of sleep. Mental activity slows down but does not stop. In fact, if awakened from slow-wave sleep, a person can often remember vague thoughts that occurred during that period of sleep.
During sleep, intervals of small, fast waves also occur. These waves are similar to those experienced while awake. The eyes move rapidly, and it appears to the observer that the sleeper is watching some event. Sleepers who are awakened during this rapid-eye-movement sleep will often recall the details of dreams they have been having. Sleep of this kind is called dreaming sleep or rapid-eye-movement sleep, also known as REM sleep.
In a period of eight hours, most sleepers experience from three to five instances of REM sleep. Each instance lasts from five to thirty minutes with an interval of at least ninety minutes between each one. Later instances of REM sleep are usually of longer duration than are instances earlier in the eight-hour period.
People who suffer sleep deprivation experience fatigue, irritability, and loss of concentration. Sleep is essential because it regenerates the brain and the nervous system. Slow-wave sleep may be especially helpful in restoring muscle control, whereas REM sleep may be more important in revitalizing mental activity. It appears that both kinds of sleep are necessary, and the recuperation of sleep of one kind will not compensate for a lack of the other kind of sleep.
1. What is the author’s main purpose in the passage?
A. To describe REM sleep
B. To explain sleep deprivation
C. To discuss the two types of sleep
D. To recommend an increase in the number of hours of sleep
2. How many times per night do most sleepers experience REM sleep?
B. Three to five
C. Five to thirty
3. The word “vague” in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by
4. The author mentions all the following as characteristics of REM sleep EXCEPT
A. Vague thoughts
B. Smaller brain waves
C. Eye movements
5. It can be inferred from the passage that students who are writing termpapers
A. Require slow-wave sleep to increase mental activity
B. Can stay up all night working and recover the sleep they need bysleeping for a few hours the next afternoon
C. Need REM sleep to restore mental functioning
D. Do not need as much sleep because of the heighened brain wavesinvolves in creative activity
As heart disease continues to be the number-one killer in the United States, researchers have become increasingly interested in identifying the potential risk factors that trigger heart attacks. High-fat diets and “life in the fast lane” have long been known to contribute to 5 the high incidence of heart failure. But according to new studies, the list of risk factors may be significantly longer and quite surprising.
Heart failure, for example, appears to have seasonal and temporal 10 patterns. A higher percentage of heart attacks occur in cold weather, and more people experience heart failure on Monday than on any other day of the week. In addition, people are more susceptible to heart attacks in the first few hours after waking. Cardiologists first observed this morning phenomenon in the mid-1980, and have since 15 discovered a number of possible causes. An early-morning rise in blood pressure, heart rate, and concentration of heart stimulating hormones, plus a reduction of blood flow to the heart, may all contribute to the higher incidence of heart attacks between the hours of 8:00 A.M. and 10:00 A.M.
In other studies, both birthdays and bachelorhood have been implicated as risk factors. Statistics reveal that heart attack rates increase significantly for both females and males in the few days immediately preceding and following their birthdays. And unmarried men are more 25 at risk for heart attacks than their married counterparts.
Though stress is thought to be linked in some way to all of the aforementioned risk factors, intense research continues in the hope of further comprehending why and how heart failure is triggered.
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
A. Risk factors in heart attacks
B. Seasonal and temporal patterns of heart attacks
C. Cardiology in the 1980s
D. Diet and stress as factors in heart attacks
2. The word “potential” could best be re-placed by which of the following?
3. The word “trigger” is closest in meaning to which of the following?
4. According to the passage, which of the following is NOT a possible cause of many heart attacks?
A. Decreased blood flow to the heart
B. Increased blood pressure
C. Lower heart rate
D. Increase in hormones
5. The word “phenomenon” refers to which of the following?
1. According to the author, we might call our eyes and ears “transformers” because:
A. They sense light and sound
B. They create electrical impulses
C. The brain can interpret the input
D. The messages travel in the brain
2. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word “admits“?
C. Lets in
D. Focuses on
3. What does the word “them” refer to?
A. Light waves
4. The word “bundle” could best be replaced by which of the following?
5. The word “split” as used is closest in meaning to which of the following?
6. Which part of the passage best decribes the first step in tranforming light into electrical impulses?
A. Lines 1-2
B. Line 2-6
C. Line 7-8
D. Line 8-9
7. According to the passage, when input from the right visual field goes into the left side of the brain, what happens?
A. The nerve fibers bundle together
B. The optic nerves split
C. The retina receives light waves
D. Input from the left field goes to the right side
8. The phrase “carried out” could best be replaced by which of the following?
A. Brought over
B. Taken away
9. Which of the following is most similar to the word “vibration“?
10. According to the passage, optic nerves eventually…
C. Admit light waves
D. Become messages
There are some diseases for which we know no cure. For many of these, however, scientists have been able to discover a means of prevention. Smallpox is such a disease.
In the 18th century, millions of people died of smallpox, while many others who recovered from the disease was left scarred for life. Today, it is rare to find a case at all.
By 1780, doctors had noticed that once a person had smallpox, he became immune to it. From this observation, the theory of inoculation was developed. Inoculation is a way of deliberately giving a person a disease by placing diseased mattar under the skin. When this is done, the person may develop a mild case of the disease, but from then one he is safe from a several attack.
Using this principle, an English doctor named Edward Jenner set to work against smallpox. He found that persons who had had a milder disease called cowpox could not catch smallpox. The cowpox seemed to make them immune. By taking some bacteria from the arm of a person who was ill with cowpox, and giving it to a healthy person, Jenner found that he could transfer the immunity. Jenner’s process came to be known as vaccination, from the Latin word “vacca”, meaning “cow”. Because of vaccination, smallpox, one of man’s greatest enemies, has been practically wiped out.
1. While not directly stated, it may be inferred from the article that
A. There is no good cure for smallpox
B. Smallpox has almost disappeared
C. Smallpox and cowpox are similar diseases
D. Smallpox can disfigure people who suffer from it
2. This article as a whole tell us
A. About an English doctor named Edward Jenner
B. All about inoculation
C. All about vaccination
D. How a terrible disease was conquered
3. Vaccination means
A. Wiping out smallpox
B. Preventing diseases by prescribing medicine
C. Transferring immunity from one person to another
D. Protecting cows from cowpox
4. Inoculation against smallpox means
A. Giving a person some medicine to take
B. Placing diseased matter under his skin
C. Injecting him with some drugs
D. Deliberately coming into contact with smallpox patients
5. Which sentence is NOT true?
A. The principle of inoculation was well-known before 1700
B. People who have been ill with cowpox are immune to smallpox
C. Vaccination can prevent smallpox
D. In the 18th century, million of people died of smallpox
III. Translate the following paragraphs into Vietnamese
Viral hepatitis (commonly called jaundice because of the yellowish tinge to the skin) is due to a viral infection in the liver. Hepatitis can be contracted from contaminated food, hypodermic needle, or blood transfusion. Symptoms of the disease do not usually appear until after incubation period of several weeks. These symptoms include the loss of appetite, fatigue, fever, and nausea in addition to the yellowish color. Hepatitis can be treated with gamma globulin.
An important function of the nervous system is to pick up sensations of light, sound, touch, taste, heat, cold, pain… etc……. These sensations are carried from sense organs to the brain over the sensory nerves. The brain receives these messages of sensations and reacts to them, makes plans, and sends orders to for action. These orders are carried by the motor nerves to the muscles of a particular part of the body
“Blood pressure” is the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood. If this pressure rises and stays high over time, it can damage the body in many ways.
Nausea and vomiting are associated with stomach and intestinal disorders such as flu, food poisoning, or dysentery. Chest pain or a congested feeling can be a symptom of heart trouble while sweating, itching, and rashes are skin manifestations of problems such as allergies, or even cancer.
People notice changes in their bodies which they associate with illness. These are called symptoms. The most clearly recognizable symptom is pain. A pain in the stomach may indicate simple indigestion or a more serious ailment such as an ulcer or dysentery. A headache is associated with colds, the flu, and head injuries while a pain in the chest may be a warning of a heart attack or lung trouble.
You have more calcium in your body than any other mineral. Calcium has many important jobs. The body stores more than 99 percent of its calcium in the bones and teeth to help make and keep them strong. The rest is throughout the body in blood, muscle and the fluid between cells. Your body needs calcium to help muscles and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system.
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder in which bones break easily. Sometimes the bones break for no known reason. OI can also cause weak muscles, brittle teeth, a curved spine and hearing loss. The cause is a gene defect that affects how you make collagen, a protein that helps make bones strong. Usually you inherit the faulty gene from a parent. Sometimes, it is due to a mutation, a random gene change.
Although bacteria are known to cause harmful diseases in humans and other organisms, it is a seldom recognized fact that bacteria actually help us fight the very disease they cause. It is through vaccines and antibiotics that medical science has made use of both the pathogenic bacteria and their toxins.
It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include diary products such as milk, cheese and yogurt, and leafy, green vegetables. The exact amount of calcium you need depends on your age and other factors. Growing children and teenagers need more calcium than young adults. Older women need plenty of calcium to prevent osteoporosis. People who do not eat enough high-calcium foods should take a calcium supplement.
Hypertesion has been called “the silent killer” because it gives no warning. In the early stages of this disease, there often are no symptoms. As the disease develops, people may have complaints which they do not investigate. They may complain of headaches, vision changes, or problems with their urinary ouputs. If they consulted a physician, permanent damage to a viral organ would be avoided. Some people with HBP do not seek help until they have a stroke. By this time there is often permanent damage to one’s vital organs
Your bones grow thicker as you get older. The thin covering the outside of the bones put down hard new bone cells to make the bone thicker and stronger. During your growing years, the end of your long bones is fastened to the bone shaft, mainly by a wide cartilage plate known as the growth plate, or epiphysis. Gradually bone cells come up from the shaft and start destroying the cartilage cells and putting down hard new cells in their place
The largest, most significant role in which bacteria are involves is the decomposition of waste materials on earth and in process, the maintaining of a balance in nature. Without these saprophytic bacteria, the remains of dead organisma and plants would not decay and the waste would accumulate so fast that it would soon interfere with the life of new generations
Despite the common and valid association of bacteria to deadly germs and disease, bacteria also have other very important roles in nature. Not only do these tiny organisms help fight disease in humans, but they also maintain the fragile balance on earth and are often used in the chemical and mining industries. These are just a new of the positive influences that certain bacteria have on the lives of living organisms
A lot of water is necessary for the chemical reduction of food into its end products. Food is moved along the length of the intestines by the rhythmic contraction of the muscle walls. This is called peristalsis. What is left of the food, after some has been absorbed by the small intestines, moves through the large intestines where water is reabsorbed into the body. The material that cannot be used by the body is excreted from the rectum through the anus as feces or waste
Most colds are caused by viruses rather than getting wet or standing in a draft, as is the common belief. The symptoms of a cold may include a runny nose, a cough, a sore throat, a fever, and various aches. None of the antibiotic drugs, such as penicillin, are effective in treating a cold. Drinking tea with honey and whiskey, a common home remedy, does not cure a cold nor does taking massive doses of Vitamin C. About all one can do is stay in bed and rest for five to seven days duration of the illness. Happily, most virus infections in otherwise healthy people are self-limited
Vaccines are used to produce an acquired immunity. A person is vaccinated with a living but weakened germ, a killed germ, or a toxic poison from the germ. The body responds by developing an immunity to the germ. Because this acquired immunity often does not last a lifetime, it may be necessary to immunize people periodically with booster shots of the vaccine
Bone is a hard substance that forms the framework around which the body is built. This framework, or skeleton, contains over 200 separate bones that support and give shape to the body and protect its vital organs. Contrary to a common misconception, bone is a living substance! In fact, bone is one of the most active tissues in the body. It is constantly being broken down and being rebuilt in a process remodeling and, like any other living tissue, needs nourishment to stay strong and healthy
The liver is the place where toxins or poisonous substances are removed from the blood. Damage to the liver can be caused by drinking alcoholic substances or taking drugs that are harmful to its tissue. The liver is also responsible for the production and storage of some elements necessary for proper circulation of the blood and for blood clotting. Blood clots are not always bad. When a blood vessel has been injured, a clot may form that holds the blood within the closed vessel until healing occurs
Muscular tissue is composed of long, thin cells, or fibers, which can contract and relax. Groups of muscles work together to perform a body motion. These muscles can be classified as smooth or striated, depending on what they look like under a microscope. Two groups of muscles that work together are called antagonistic grows. Extend your forearm. The biceps muscle relaxes while the triceps contracts. Abduction means moving a part away from the body, and adduction means moving it toward the body
Proper breathing involves drawing in through the nose. The nasal cavity warms and moistens the air and filters it of impurities. Tint hair and sticky mucous membranes trap foreign materials before they can enter the delicate tissues of the lung. Structure in the nasal cavity called concha increase the surface area allowing maximum efficiency
The sinuses are hollow areas, or cavities in the bones of the skull that are lined with mucous membranes and that open into the nasal cavity. The sinuses provide resonance for the voice. When the sinuses are inflamed and filled with mucus, the voice has a different quality, often referred to as nasal in character
There are three main types of cancer. A carcinoma originates from the surface cells of the skin or the linings of the internal organs. A sarcoma attacks the muscles, bones, tendons, cartilage, fat, blood vessels, lymph system or connective tissue. Leukemia afflicts the blood forming cells. Some cancers grow slowly; others spread rapidly, doubling in bulk in days. Cancers can appear anywhere in the body but some common sites are the lungs, the breasts, the uterine cervix, the skin, the colon, and the blood
Diabetes is a disease in which the body no longer uses sugar properly. In a healthy body special cells in the pancreas secret the hormones insulin and glucogin which help to store sugar. This no longer happens when one suffers from diabetes. A victim of diabetes thus must limit sugar and starch intake and possibly take daily injections of insulin
Allergies are common, and may increase with environmental deterioration. Person who cannot tolerate certain foreign substances may react with a rash or hives, with hay fever or asthma, or with eczema or other manifestations. The substance acts as an antigen which stimulates excessive antibody reaction. The reaction can usually be weakened by medication or by desensitization injects, but the only real cure is to avoid the allergies
Different genes are activated in different cells, creating the specific proteins that give a particular cell type its character. A gene is the basic unit of heredity in a living organism. All living things depend on genes to hold the information to build and maintain their cells and to pass on their traits to offspring. In general terms, a gene is a segment of nucleic acid that, taken as a whole, specifies a trait. The colloquial usage of the term gene often refers to the scientific concept of an allele
There are three ways that strong bones are dependent on proper nourishment. First, keep the bone cells healthy and active. Second, supply the variety of important nutritional building blocks needed to form the organic matrix of bone. Finally, supply the complex of minerals that need to be placed on that organic net making up
Paget’s disease of bone causes your bones to grow larger and weaker than normal. They also might break easily. The disease can lead to other health problems, too, such as arthritis and hearing loss. You can have Paget’s disease in any bone, but it is most common in the spine, pelvis, skull and legs. The disease might affect one or several bones, but not your entire skeleton. More men than women have the disease. It is most common in older people
Although it is not usually difficult to produce anesthesia in patients, the skills of a carefully trained anesthetist are necessary, for anesthetic drugs can be dangerous. The anesthetist must prepare the patient with a series of preparatory drugs. He or she must also keep careful watch of the patient’s vital signs throughout the operation to assure that they remain as close to normal as possible
Oxygen os absorbed into the body during breathing. Carbon dioxide is released from the body during breathing. Water vapour is also lost during breathing. You should know about the internal structure of the lungs. The windpipe (trachea) branches into 2 bronchi (one to each lung). Cartilage rings in the walls of the windpipe help to keep it open however much you twist your neck. The bronchi split into smaller and smaller tubes called bronchioles. The bronchioles end in microscopic air sacs. These air sacs are lined with mucus and are surrounded by a network of blood capillaries
The epiglottis is flap of cartilage in the throat behind the tongue and in front of the larynx. The epiglottis is usually upright at rest allowing air to pass into the larynx and lungs. When a person swallows, the epiglottis folds backward to cover the entrance of the larynx so food and liquid do not enter the windpipe and lungs. After swallowing, the epiglottis returns to its original upright position
Pain in the right leg and in the back, 6/52 previously
Wake up at night, have difficulty in carrying on with the work
Lost three kilos
Suffered from intermittent pain in the back
Paracetamol gave some relief
(1) What’s brought you along today?
I’ve got a pain in the right leg and in the back
(2) How long have they been bothering you?
About 6 weeks
(3) How does the pain affect to you?
It make me wake up at night, I have difficulty in carrying on with the work
(4) Have you noticed any change in your weight?
I’ve lost 3 kilos
(5) Does anything make it better?
I feel better when I take a paracetamol
Central chest pain, occurred on exertion, 3/12 previously
Accompanied by sweating
Smoked 40 cigarettes a day, lose weight recently
Denied any palpitation or ankle oedema
Paracetamol gave some relief
(1) What’s brought you along today?
I’ve got a central chess pain
(2) Can you describe the pain?
It hurts when I overdo things
(3) When did the pain first happen?
It first happened 3 months ago
(4) Is there anything else you feel at the same time?
Yes, I also sweat
(5) Do you smoke? How much do you smoke?
Yes, I smoke 40 cigarettes a day
– Now I just want to see you standing hand by your side
– I would like you to slide your right hand down the right side of your thigh
– Keep your knee straight
– Stand up straight again
– Now I just want to see you standing hand by your side
– Keep your feet together just as they are
– Try to turn both shoulders to the right
– Look right round
– Keep your knee and feet steady
– Go back to the center again
– Now I just want to see you standing hand by your side
– I would like you to lean backwards as far as you can
– Keep your knee and feet steady
– Stand up straight again
– Would you slip off your top things, please?
– Now I just want to see you standing hand by your side
– Could you bend down as far as you can and keep your knee straight?
– Keep your knee and feet steady
– Stand up again